Science Advances September 2019

Discontinuous spread of millet agriculture in eastern Asia and prehistoric population dynamics

Leipe C, Long T, Sergusheva EA, Wagner M, Tarasov PE

Christian Leipe and few other BAP members published an article in Science Advances. Abstract: Although broomcorn and foxtail millet are among the earliest staple crop domesticates, their spread and impacts on demography remain controversial, mainly because of the use of indirect evidence. Bayesian modeling applied to a dataset of new and published radiocarbon dates derived from domesticated millet grains suggests that after their initial cultivation in the crescent around the Bohai Sea ca. 5800 BCE, the crops spread [...]

2019-11-21T09:52:49-07:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , |
Hydrological Processes August 2019

Moisture origin and stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in southeast Siberia

Kostrova SS, Meyer H, Fernandoy F, Werner M, Tarasov PE

Abstract: The paper presents oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of 284 precipitation event samples systematically collected in Irkutsk, in the Baikal region (southeast Siberia), between June 2011 and April 2017. This is the first high‐resolution dataset of stable isotopes of precipitation from this poorly studied region of continental Asia, which has a high potential for isotope‐based palaeoclimate research. The dataset revealed distinct seasonal variations: relatively high δ18O (up to −4‰) and δD (up to −40‰) values characterize summer air [...]

2019-11-21T11:04:01-07:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: |
Quaternary International May 2019

Special Issue: Climate change and human-environment interaction from Neolithic to historical times

Novenko E (Guest Editor), Tarasov PE (Guest Editor), Shumilovskikh L (Guest Editor)

The idea of the special issue “Climate change and human-environment interaction from Neolithic to historical times” arose from a session bearing the same name, which has been organized by the Commission on Environment Evolution of the International Geographical Union under the framework of the 33rd International Geographical Congress held in Beijing (PR China) in August, 2016. This volume is focused on multi-disciplinary studies of landscape evolution, climate dynamics and human activity in different regions of the world during [...]

2019-07-19T10:43:13-06:00Categories: Publications, Special Issues|Tags: |
Quaternary International May 2019

Heterogeneous vegetation sensitivity at local and regional scales: Implications for pollen-based climate reconstruction

Ding W, Xu W, Fu T, Ma C, Tarasov PE

Vegetation–climate relationships are often different at varying spatial scales, which is seldom taken into account in reconstructing past climate changes from fossil pollen spectra represent more local vegetation composition but using regional or extra-regional modern pollen–climate calibration set. In this paper, we employ 2620 surface pollen spectra and six pollen sequences from continental East Asia to reconstruct Holocene climate with modern analogue technique. A novel data set of vegetation sensitivity index (VSI) is introduced to examine vegetation–climate relationships [...]

2019-07-19T10:30:16-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: |
Quaternary International May 2019

Postglacial vegetation and climate history and traces of early human impact and agriculture in the present-day cool mixed forest zone of European Russia

Tarasov PE, Savelieva LA, Long T, Leipe C

This study is based on the reassessment and correlation of five pollen records from the upper Western Dvina River region. For the most complete record (Korovinskoe Mire; 56°16′N, 31°20′E) we constructed a Bayesian age-depth model to provide robust chronological control for the reconstructed changes in the regional environments and to facilitate interregional comparisons. The results show that the Holocene Thermal Maximum in the study region (ca. 8600–6900 cal BP) started and ended some centuries earlier than suggested for the [...]

2019-07-19T10:27:24-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , |
Quaternary International May 2019

Testing the performance of sodium polytungstate and lithium heteropolytungstate as non-toxic dense media for pollen extraction from lake and peat sediment samples

Leipe C, Kobe F, Müller S

Pollen analysis is one of the most important methods to reconstruct past climate change and to understand prehistoric and early historic human-environment interactions. Every study based on fossil pollen assemblages from sedimentary archives starts with the preparation of collected sample material. The most widely employed protocols to concentrate pollen involve the use of several chemicals including hydrofluoric acid (HF), which is extremely hazardous to human health. As an alternative to HF, we have tested the reliability of dense [...]

2019-07-19T10:22:39-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , |
International Jounral of Paleopathology September 2019

An innovative method to visualise mastoiditis using a hand-held X-ray system

Purchase S, Bazaliiskii V, Lieverse AR

Objective: We explore the utility of using a hand-held X-ray system to diagnose mastoiditis in archaeological populations. Materials: A sample (n = 56) of hunter-fisher-gatherers from the Early Neolithic (8,000–7,000/6,800 cal. BP) Cis-Baikal cemetery of Shamanka II (Russia) were examined. Methods: Images were taken medio-laterally, approximately 90° to a sensor temporarily affixed to the lateral surface of the mastoid process. Digital radiographs were analysed for signs of mastoiditis occurring pre- and/or post-puberty. Results: Two thirds of individuals (39/56) exhibited evidence of [...]

2019-06-11T11:28:01-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , |
Geography, Environment, Sustainability February 2019

Late glacial and early Holocene environments and human occupation in Brandenburg, eastern Germany

Kobe F, Bittner MK, Leipe C, Hoelzmann P, Long T, Wagner M, Zibulski R, Tarasov PE

The paper reports on the results of the pollen, plant macrofossil and geochemical analyses and the AMS 14C-based chronology of the «Rüdersdorf» outcrop situated east of Berlin in Brandenburg (Germany). The postglacial landscape changed from an open one to generally forested by ca. 14 cal. kyr BP. Woody plants (mainly birch and pine) contributed up to 85% to the pollen assemblages ca. 13.4–12.5 cal. kyr BP. The subsequent Younger Dryas (YD) interval is characterized by a decrease in [...]

2019-07-15T16:33:58-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
Radiocarbon October 2018

Using δ2H in Human Bone Collagen to Correct for Freshwater 14C Reservoir Offsets: A Pilot Study from Shamanka II, Lake Baikal, Southern Siberia

Schulting RJ, Snoeck C, Begley I, Brookes S, Bazaliiskii VI, Ramsey CB, Weber AW

There is increasing awareness of the need to correct for freshwater as well as marine reservoir effects when undertaking radiocarbon (14C) dating of human remains. Here, we explore the use of stable hydrogen isotopes (δ2H), alongside the more commonly used stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), for correcting 14C freshwater reservoir offsets in 10 paired human-faunal dates from graves at the prehistoric cemetery of Shamanka II, Lake Baikal, southern Siberia. Excluding one individual showing no offset, the average [...]

2019-03-25T21:28:19-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology September/October 2018

Shifting weaning practices in Early Neolithic Cis‐Baikal, Siberia: New insights from stable isotope analysis of molar micro‐samples

Scharlotta I, Goude G, Herrscher E, Bazaliiskii VI, Weber AW

Reconstructing individual dietary histories at Shamanka II, an Early Neolithic (7000–5700 cal. BP) Kitoi hunter‐gatherer cemetery in Cis‐Baikal, Siberia, revealed surprising intrapopulation variability in childhood diets. Stable isotope analytical data produced by micro‐sampled first molars identified changes in both the timing and rate of weaning for different individuals. Further, examination within the framework of a high‐resolution radiocarbon chronology identified shifting practices between two phases of cemetery use, and additional links with mortuary treatment that indicates differences relating to group [...]

2019-03-18T09:11:49-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |