International Jounral of Paleopathology September 2019

An innovative method to visualise mastoiditis using a hand-held X-ray system

Purchase S, Bazaliiskii V, Lieverse AR

Objective: We explore the utility of using a hand-held X-ray system to diagnose mastoiditis in archaeological populations. Materials: A sample (n = 56) of hunter-fisher-gatherers from the Early Neolithic (8,000–7,000/6,800 cal. BP) Cis-Baikal cemetery of Shamanka II (Russia) were examined. Methods: Images were taken medio-laterally, approximately 90° to a sensor temporarily affixed to the lateral surface of the mastoid process. Digital radiographs were analysed for signs of mastoiditis occurring pre- and/or post-puberty. Results: Two thirds of individuals (39/56) exhibited evidence of [...]

2019-06-11T11:28:01-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , |
Geography, Environment, Sustainability February 2019

Late glacial and early Holocene environments and human occupation in Brandenburg, eastern Germany

Kobe F, Bittner MK, Leipe C, Hoelzmann P, Long T, Wagner M, Zibulski R, Tarasov PE

The paper reports on the results of the pollen, plant macrofossil and geochemical analyses and the AMS 14C-based chronology of the «Rüdersdorf» outcrop situated east of Berlin in Brandenburg (Germany). The postglacial landscape changed from an open one to generally forested by ca. 14 cal. kyr BP. Woody plants (mainly birch and pine) contributed up to 85% to the pollen assemblages ca. 13.4–12.5 cal. kyr BP. The subsequent Younger Dryas (YD) interval is characterized by a decrease in [...]

2019-05-29T15:36:03-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
Radiocarbon October 2018

Using δ2H in Human Bone Collagen to Correct for Freshwater 14C Reservoir Offsets: A Pilot Study from Shamanka II, Lake Baikal, Southern Siberia

Schulting RJ, Snoeck C, Begley I, Brookes S, Bazaliiskii VI, Ramsey CB, Weber AW

There is increasing awareness of the need to correct for freshwater as well as marine reservoir effects when undertaking radiocarbon (14C) dating of human remains. Here, we explore the use of stable hydrogen isotopes (δ2H), alongside the more commonly used stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), for correcting 14C freshwater reservoir offsets in 10 paired human-faunal dates from graves at the prehistoric cemetery of Shamanka II, Lake Baikal, southern Siberia. Excluding one individual showing no offset, the average [...]

2019-03-25T21:28:19-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology September/October 2018

Shifting weaning practices in Early Neolithic Cis‐Baikal, Siberia: New insights from stable isotope analysis of molar micro‐samples

Scharlotta I, Goude G, Herrscher E, Bazaliiskii VI, Weber AW

Reconstructing individual dietary histories at Shamanka II, an Early Neolithic (7000–5700 cal. BP) Kitoi hunter‐gatherer cemetery in Cis‐Baikal, Siberia, revealed surprising intrapopulation variability in childhood diets. Stable isotope analytical data produced by micro‐sampled first molars identified changes in both the timing and rate of weaning for different individuals. Further, examination within the framework of a high‐resolution radiocarbon chronology identified shifting practices between two phases of cemetery use, and additional links with mortuary treatment that indicates differences relating to group [...]

2019-03-18T09:11:49-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
American Journal of Human Biology 20 August 2018

“Mind the gap”—Assessing methods for aligning age determination and growth rate in multi‐molar sequences of dietary isotopic data

Scharlotta I, Goude G, Herrscher E, Bazaliiskii VI, Weber AW

Creating multi‐tooth sequences of micro‐sampled stable isotope (SI) analytical data can help track 20+ years of individual dietary history. Inferences about individual and population level behavioral patterns require cross‐calibration of the timing of dietary changes recorded by each tooth. Dentin sections from contemporaneous tissues (eg, in M1 and M2) reflect dietary signature for the time of growth. Contemporary sections should produce similar values, allowing alignment of temporally overlapping portions of teeth into multi‐tooth sequences. Published methods for determining [...]

2019-03-22T14:16:28-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports August 2018

Evaluating sodium hydroxide usage for stable isotope analysis of prehistoric human tooth dentine

van der Haas VM, Garvie-Lok S, Bazaliiskii VI, Weber AW

Analyzing carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in serial samples of human tooth dentine can aid in reconstructing life history events such as weaning and diet. As dentine does not remodel after formation, it retains the isotopic signatures of the foods ingested during a tooth's development, allowing investigation of the diet consumed during this time. Microsampling human archaeological tissues is becoming increasingly popular but no consensus has been reached on the best method to remove soil humates from such small [...]

2019-03-13T12:25:59-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , |
PNAS 17 July 2018

Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans

Mühlemann B, Margaryan A, de Barros Damgaard P, Allentoft ME, Vinner L, Hansen AJ, Weber A, Bazaliiskii VI, Molak M, Arneborg J, Bogdanowicz W, Falys C, Sablin M, Smrčka V, Sten S, Tashbaeva K, Lynnerup N, Sikora M, Smith DJ, Fouchier RAM, Drosten C, Sjögren K-G, Kristiansen K, Willerslev E, Jones TC

Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer to those typical of RNA viruses. On the basis of genetic sequences up to ∼70 years of age, the most recent common ancestor of all B19V has been dated to the early 1800s, [...]

2019-03-13T12:17:08-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , |
Science 29 June 2018

The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia

de Barros Damgaard P, Martiniano R, Kamm J, Moreno-Mayar JV, Kroonen G, Peyrot M, Barjamovic G, Rasmussen S, Zacho C, Baimukhanov N, Zaibert V, Merz V, Biddanda A, Merz I, Usmanova E, Loman V, Hemphill B, Seguin-Orlando A, Yediay FE, Ullah I, Sjögren KG, Iversen KH, Choin J, de la Fuente C, Ilardo M, Schroeder H, Moiseyev V, Gromov A, Polyakov A, Omura S, Senyurt SY, Ahmad H, McKenzie C, Margaryan A, Hameed A, Samad A, Gul N, Khokhar MH, Goriunova OI, Bazaliiskii VI, Novembre J, Weber AW, Orlando L, Allentoft ME, Nielsen R, Kristiansen K, Sikora M, Outram AK, Durbin R, Willerslev E

The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyzed 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia [...]

2019-03-18T10:22:47-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , , |
Nature 09 May 2018

137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes

de Barros Damgaard P, Marchi N, Rasmussen S, Peyrot M, Renaud G, Korneliussen T, Moreno-Mayar JV, Pedersen MW, Goldberg A, Usmanova E, Baimukhanov N, Loman V, Hedeager L, Pedersen AG, Nielsen K, Afanasiev G, Akmatov K, Aldashev A, Alpaslan A, Baimbetov G, Bazaliiskii VI, Beisenov A, Boldbaatar B, Boldgiv B, Dorzhu C, Ellingvag S, Erdenebaatar D, Dajani R, Dmitriev E, Evdokimov E, Frei KM, Gromov A, Goryachev A, Hakonarson H, Hegay T, Khachatryan Z, Khashkhanov R, Kitov E, Kolbina A, Kubatbek T, Kukushkin A, Kukushkin I, Lau N, Margaryan A, Merkyte I, Mertz IV, Mertz VK, Mijiddorj E, Moiyesev V, Mukhtarova G, Nurmukhanbetov B, Orozbekova Zh, Panyushkina I, Pieta K, Smrčka V, Shevnina I, Logvin A, Sjögren K-G, Štolcová T, Tashbaeva K, Tkachev A, Tulegenov T, Voyakin D, Yepiskoposyan L, Undrakhbold S, Varfolomeev V, Weber A, Kradin N, Allentoft ME, Orlando L, Nielsen R, Sikora M, Heyer E, Kristiansen K, Willerslev E

For thousands of years the Eurasian steppes have been a centre of human migrations and cultural change. Here we sequence the genomes of 137 ancient humans (about 1× average coverage), covering a period of 4,000 years, to understand the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age migrations. We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age [...]

2019-03-13T12:07:39-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: , , |
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports February 2018

Differentiating mobility and migration in middle Holocene Cis-Baikal, Siberia

Scharlotta I

The development of analytical techniques associated with individual life history approaches to reconstructing prehistoric patterns of diet and mobility has produced significant changes in the potential information contained within a single skeleton. In the context of Early Bronze Age hunter-gatherer groups in Cis-Baikal, Siberia, a comparison of bulk versus micro-sampling strategies has altered understanding of the level of mobility and interaction. Detailed surveys of biogeochemical variation in the landscape combined with improved resolution translate into an ability to examine the provenance and track the movements of an individual [...]

2019-03-14T17:08:41-06:00Categories: Publications, Journal Articles|Tags: |